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|Our history and activity 勇善会の歴史と活動 フルコンタクト剛柔流への道 Last update October19, 2014
|First of all, I will talk about Goju-Ryu Karate history. The reason is
that my main Karate-ryuha is Goju-Ryu.And I think when someone is right
and accountable to Japanese Karate-ka, he must be able to explain the genealogy
from the founder to him.
It had been said that the root of Goju-Ryu was Chinese Kun-Fu, and that Kanryou Higaonna(1853～1916)) learnt it in China in the 19Century. However recently it has been proven that the root of Goju-Ryu existed in Okinawa before Kanryou Higaonna. Moreover,the Chinese Kun-fu which is the same Goju-Ryu doesn't exist in present China.
By the way, there is the big organization named Goju-Kai. It is the organization established by the graduates of the Ritsumeikan university (Kyoto) after World War II.(1951)I want everybody not to misunderstand it. The name of "Goju-Ryu" is not the meaning of "Karate of Goju-Kai". The name of Goju-Ryu has been existing before WW Ⅱ and used in various parts of Japan.The graduates of the university quoted the "Goju"from "Goju-ryu", and made their group name the"Goju-kai". Japanese "Kai" is a meaning of "Group".
Goju-ryu has several legends on its root. Strangely, the correctly name of Higaonna's Chinese master isnot unknown. It is said that the name was "Ru-Ruko" or“Tu-Ruko".But they are quite different in meaning though their pronunciation seems alike. “Ru-Ru” is the nickname of Higaonna when he was in China The "Ryo" of Kanryo is pronounced "Ru" in Chinese. It is presumed that his nickname "Ryu-Ryu" was made from "Ryo" simply spoken two times. Historical actual existence can be confirmed to Tu-Ruko. Tu-Ruko is the Chinese martial artist "Jeng Lai-Gung" .He was the expert of "Bai He-Quan".It might be certain that he was one of the originators of GoJu-Ryu. However, he is not the founder itself.
It is presumed that the following six requirements complete Gojo-Ryu and/or Okinawan Karate.
① Kempo that existed in Kume Village in Okinawa from 1392.
② Kempo of “Wai Shinzan” who came from China in the 19th Century.
③ Kempo of “Tu Ruko"who was Higaonna's teacher at China duaring 19th century
④ Techniques that Miyagi learned in China 90years before.
⑤ The technique originally developed by Miyagi.
⑥ Techniques that Miyagi learned from “Motobu Choyo” in the 20th century
Kume town in Naha City,Okinawa Prefecture
|①Many scholars and professional skill person's groups came from China to
Okinawa by the Chinese emperor's instruction in 1392. They came from Fuzhou
in Fujian in China. And, they settled down in the kume village in Naha
with the maximum trading port.
They were called "the 36 families in kume-village(久米三十六姓)". By the way, the word "36" is a metaphor of "so many". In them, there were some experts of military arts . They were the roots of Goju-Ryu Karate. It can be said that this historical event is a starting point of Gojuryu. That is, it can be said that Goju-Ryu Karate has the history for 600 years.
|Gojuryu certainly has the technique and the theory based on the philosophy
and the medicine of the deep Orient more than the imagination.
Afterwards, their descendant was the leader layer of diplomatic and of trade between China and Okinawa for 500 years. In the Goju-Ryu DOJO that values the tradition of Okinawa,the martial arts god "Kyu,Ten,Fu, Ka, In, DenTo,Gensui" (九天風火院田都元帥)is enshrined. It is the god of the folk customs belief (taoism) imported from China by them.
②Who are “Wai Shinzan” and ③"Tou Ruko?”
“Wai Shinzan” was Chinese martial artist and teacher of Aragaki Sesyo (teacher of Higaonna Kanryo). His real name was Wang Daxing (王打興：1793?~1894?). He came to Okinawa twice, once in 1838 and once in 1866 as the military arts executive accompanying representatives of the Chinese government. The pronunciation “Wai Shinzan” originates from “Wang Shijiang：王師匠” (meaning; Wang sensei). Wai Shinzan had kept close relations with Shihan in Okinawa. In the famous martial arts book “Bubishi”, mainly handed down to Gojo-Ryu, his philosophy is recorded .In this book,he was introduced his pen name"Wang Yuedeng王登岳.” (“Bubishi” can be called the Bible of Gojo-Ryu.) He can be regarded as one of the founders of Gojo-Ryu. Matsumura Sokon, however was his student too, and his influences are also seen in Syuri-De (the roots of Syotokan-ryu and Shorin-ryu and Tomari-De. For example, the names of kata such as “Wankan”, “Wansyu”, and “Unsu” originate in the alias named Wang Shijiang. “Wankan” is the shortened form of “Wan-Bukan王武官”. The bukan means the“martial bureaucrat.” “Wansyo” is the shortened form of “Wang Shijiang” (meaning Wang sensei). Unsu is the one that is the shortened form of “Wang Shijiang” and the pronunciation has changed. Incidentally, he was a famous martial artist in the Chinese “White Crane Kung Fu”. As a result, Karate was influenced from this type of Kung Fu.
Note: Wai Shinzan = Wang Shijian = Wang Daxing = Wang Yuedang)Bubishi"(武備志… It is said the Bible of Gojuryu.)
沖縄の武備志 中国の武備志(清王朝中期の手彩色本鶴拳拳譜) 沖縄伝武備志の原版
The Bubishi of Okinawa The original edition"Genealogy of Fujian White Crane"(China in 17th century)
|“Tou Ruko” is presumed to be Higaonna Kanryo’s teacher. Of course,
this pronunciation is in the Okinawan language. Therefore, there
are various theories about “Tou Ruko.” What does “Tou Ruko” have
to do with the roots of Gojo-Ryu being similar to Wai Shinzan? It
is presumed that he was Ton Lee-Kun"鄭礼公", a Chinese expert of
“Fujian White Crane.” More specifics about Ton Lee Kung will be presented
Okinawa in middle of the 19th century
Kanryo Higaonna had three famous students -- Juhatsu Kyodo, Chojun Miyagi,
and Seiko Higa. Juhatsu Kyodo is the first teacher of Kanki Izumikawa.(He
was the oldest student of Seiko Higa.) Higaonna handed down four katas:
Sanchin, Sesan, Sanseru, and Bettyurin. Bettyurin is assumed to be an alias
of Suparinpei. There is the proven documentation that these kata had existed
in Okinawa before Higaonna.
I convince that the name "Ru-Ruko" is not the name of Higaonna’s
master but the Higaonna's Chinese name. In a word, Chinese name of
Higaonna may have been misidentified with his master’s name. Nowaday
some Karateka come to China to look for the evidence of Ru-Ruko. And,of
course, the master Ru-Ruko hadnot discovered. What they are really arguing
about is misunderstanding when they discover a Chinese master with a name that looks likes Ru-Ruko.
However, it is just a fantasy because the Kung-Fu correspond to Gojo-Ryu
hadnot identified at all. By the way,the name “Tou Ruko” had been memorized
by Higa Seiko. Therefore, his reputation has not been compromised
according to these facts. Higaonna certainly revived the Naha-te
that had gotten lost,and handed downit to future generations. As a result,
Gojo-Ryu exists today.
Juhatsu Kyoda(1887–1968)許田 重発
He founded Touon-Ryu from the difference of opinion with Miyagi.
"Touon" is Higaonna variant pronunciation.Kyoda is the successor
with accurate technique of Kanryo Higaonna. He is not modifying the technique
of Kanryo Higaonna at all.KATA that he passed on to future generations
is as following six . "SANCHIN,SESAN,SANSERU,BETTYURIN,JION,NEPAI"
Young Kyoda.From the movie before WW Ⅱ that had miraculously remained.
Chojun Miyagi(1888-1953)宮城 長順
④MIYAGI Chojun(the nick name was "Machu")had a major influence
on the spread of Goju-Ryu Karate to Japan.He regularly visited the Kyoto
area for a certain period of time in the 1930's.And he taught some university
students. (Gogen Yamaguchi was one of the students at that time.)
In the place (Kume town, Naha city) where Goju-Ryu was born, there is a commending stone monument dedicated Kanryo Higaonna and Chojun Miyagi.
|④Kyoda and Miyagi when they were young. They were rival at the same time as the relation like the brother it|
⑤Gekisai1, Gekisai2, and Tensyo was Miyagi created. Higaonna's Suparinpei was handed down as Suparinpei which was improved and corrected by Miyagi. Higaonna did not teach the kata named Suparinpei. The Bettyurin Higaonna taught is maintained in Touon-Ryu of Kyoda today. Shito-Ryu also has the Suparinpei kata.And the kata is calledas Bettyurin. That kata is, however, the same as Superinpei of Goju-Ryu. It is clearly different from the Bettyurin kata of Touon-Ryu.
Where then did Saifa, Seienchin, Shisouchin, Sepai, and Kururunfa come from? It turns out that there is documentation shows that Shisouchin existed before Higaonna. In the opening operation, Seienchin, Sepai, and Kururunfa do not have sanchin operation. They are, in fact, obviously different from other kata of Goju-ryu. And these kata donot exist in Touon-Ryu of Kyoda. This means that Miyagi had had another teacher besides Higaonna. Who was he?
Motobu Choyu formed the "Okinawa Karate Research Club" in 1923 as a joint Karate research organization. As a result, a lot of famous Karate masters participated in the club. It so happens that Miyagi Chojun and Mabuni Kenwa took active roles as members in the club staff. Motobu maintained several kata that were able to be known through association with the royal family, Miyagi Chojun learned many of the kata from Motobu. It is believed that Saifa, Sisouchin, Seienchin, Sepai, and Kururunfa came from Motobu because the kata all share similar techniques including joint locks, chokeholds, tighten holds, grappling holds, and throws that are common elements of Udon-di. Motobu endeavored to advance Okinawan martial arts until his death in 1928.
Motobu’s death along with divisions within the sect caused by financial difficulties resulted in the decline and eventual disappearance of the Okinawa Karate Research Club。
Another important person with roots in Goju-Ryu is Go Kenki (1886-1940). Kenki was a naturalized person from China, and his martial arts lines are of Crane Kung-Fu. Miyagi Chojun was always interested in this technique. His strong influence can be seen in Tensyo and Suparinpei. The “Kakufa” kata from Go Kenki is maintained in Higa Seko’s Goju-Ryu as a secret Kata. It also appears that “Yantu” from Mas Oyama’s (Kyokushi-Kai’s) kata is along the lines of the same Kung-Fu. Mas Oyama was coming from Goju-Ryu. It is said that Mas Oyama learned Yantu in Taiwan.
Motobu Choyu(1857-1928) Go Kenki.( 1886～1940)
Sekō(Seiko) Higa (1898–1966) 比嘉 世幸
He was yhe relative and the last student of Kanryo Higaonna. And he studied under Chojun Miyagi who was the senior pupil at the time of the death of Higaonna,too. The idea and action of of their Karate, however, were considerably different.
Chojun Miyagi thought of Karate as physical education, equal with Judo and Kendo. Because he valued the school education. The first people he taught in Japan proper were university students who were part of the elite social class. In contrast, Higa started succeeding to Naha-Di as a martial art with the center of his activity being Okinawa. Kanryou Higaonna and Kanki Izumikawa were the relatives of each other. Moreover, Higaonna and Higa’s father were the relatives and best friends. In his boyhood, he was exposed to the Karate preaching of his father and Higaonna. It can be said that Goju-Ryu karate was Higaonna's and Higa's family martial art. Juhatsu Kyoda was Kanki Izunikawa’s teacher at primary school.
Kanki Izumikawa (1908 – 1969)泉川 寛喜
Izumikawa’s first master was Juhatsu Kyoda. They were relatives. Moreover, there was a relationship between the student and teacher in elementary school. He was the best student of Seko Higa. His dojo, which was established in 1934, was the first Goju-Ryu dojo of the east region of Japan. Goju-Ryu Karate spread from his dojo to foreign countries including Hawaii and South America. When Miyagi demonstrated Goju-Ryu in Hawaii, he was greatly helped by Izunikawa’s father. He was an authority Of Goju-Ryu in Japan proper until his death in 1969.
Hanshi Naganuma is the last actual combat Karateka who Kanki Izumikawa
guided.He is the final generation used Goju-Ryu Karate in the real fight. The
technique verified by that experience is abundant. (Such an experiment
is legally impossible in Japan today.)He opposed the changing Gojuryu into
sports at later years, did not associate with the sports sect thereafter,
and persisted in original classicism.
|Kazunori Omoto 尾本一則(1958～)
Kancho Omoto has been studying Karate under Hanshi Naganuma (who was the
last student of Hanshi Izumikawa) since 1973. He also earned a Masters
of Arts degree in Comparative and International Education from the Waseda
University Graduate School of Education,
He lectured in Ethics as a high school teacher for 32 years. During the time period, he has also carefully guided and brought up generation after generation of high school students, athletes and Karate enthusiasts. From 1993 to 2013, he was a position of Saioko Shiihan of WBKL Furinkazan Karatedo which Terutomo Yamazaki, the first champion of Kyokushin, was an originator.
Kancho Omoto's students have made extraordinary efforts, and acquired victories and various
awards in the All-Japan Karate Championships (Zen Nihon Senshuken Karate
Taikai), the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Karate Championships (Wangan Chi i
ki Taikai, the Pacific Ocean District Championships (Taiheiyou Chi i ki
Taikai), and various municipality district championships. Some of them
have become excellent Karate instructors. The Karate instruction in which
Omoto Sensei guided his high schools was a general JKF style according
to the rules for high schools in
Shihans in Honbu Dojo
(Successors of YUZENKAI Japan)
Masashi KOGA,5thDan Renshi
Yusuke JOHTAKI,5thDan Renshi
The achievement of the essence of Gojuryu is impossible in the game by the rule of JKF. The Jiyu-Kumite that admits contact,joint technique,throwing,constriction techniques and grappling technique are necessary . Otherwise, the Gojuryu will become the name only of the KATA game.
頭部や衣への掴みも一定時間許容されるべきである。Goju-Ryu Karate should allow the gripping to the head and clothes during the fixed time.
Technique for applying "SISOUCHIN".
那覇手剛柔流空手道古武道勇善会館長 尾本一則 Kazunori OMOTO, Kancho of YUZENKAI
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